Definition of recession
A recession is a severe,
pervasive, and protracted decline in economic activity, or simply a very
slowdown in economic growth. A recession is often defined as two-quarters of
declining gross domestic product (GDP) in a row. Economic output, consumer
demand, and employment all often experience reductions during recessions.
Recessions are defined
differently by the Business Cycle Dating Committee (BCDC) of the National
Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), which is in charge of determining the dates
of the peaks and troughs that frame economic recessions and expansions: “A
recession involves a significant decline in economic activity that is spread
across the economy and lasts more than a few months.” The depth,
diffusion, and length criteria, according to the committee, must all be
partially met before a recession may be said to have occurred. As a result, in
order to comprehend the upcoming recession, we must consider a variety of
economic activity indicators.
An adverse supply shock is an
an occurrence that abruptly increases or decreases the supply of a good or
service, or of goods and services in general. Other potential causes of this
recessionary conditions include the bursting of an economic bubble, a financial
crisis, an external trade shock, a large-scale anthropogenic or natural
disaster, and adverse supply shocks due to other factors (e.g., a pandemic).
A common misconception holds
that depression is nothing more than an exceptionally severe or extended recession,
therefore, to understand the upcoming recession, In order to believe the
upcoming recession is only a recession, it is essential to know the difference
between a recession and a depression.
Difference between depression and recession
A popular saying goes, “A
recession is when your neighbor loses his job, a depression is when you lose
This reinforces the generally
held modern notion that depression is just a very severe recession. We must
therefore, comprehend the distinction between a depression and a recession.
What is depression?
Depression is a significant
downswing in the business cycle that is much more severe than a downward trend.
Business cycles refer to an increase in the
unemployment rate, a resulting decline in income, a subsequent decline in
business sales, a subsequent decline in output, and a resulting decrease in
employment. It is characterized by greatly reduced industrial
production, widespread unemployment, a serious slowdown, or cessation of growth
in the construction industry, and significant decreases in trade and capital
flows on a global scale. A recession may be geographically confined (limited to
a single country) so as to upcoming recession, whereas a depression (like the
Great Depression of the 1930s) can occur throughout multiple countries. This
distinction is in addition to the severity and impacts of each.
A brief history of Recessions
Over the past seven decades,
there have been four worldwide recessions: in 1975, 1982, 1991, and 2009. Each
of these periods saw a decline in the yearly real per capita global gross
domestic product, which was accompanied by a deterioration of other important
global economic activity indices. The worldwide recessions caused serious
economic and financial disruptions in many nations throughout the world and
were highly synchronized on a global scale. The global recession of 2009, which
was brought on by the global financial crisis, was by far the most severe and
well-timed of the four recessions. Advanced economies took the burden of the
recession because they were the hub of the issue. In industrialized economies,
the expansion that followed has been the weakest since the end of World War II
because so many of them have had trouble overcoming the effects of the crisis.
In contrast, the majority of developing and emerging market economies fared
better during the global crisis of 2009 and produced a faster recovery than in
the past. Again, the developed economies of the globe are most likely to be
affected by the upcoming recession.
The 1973 oil crisis, OPEC’s
quadrupling of oil prices, and the 1973–1974 stock market meltdown caused the
United States to experience a stagflation recession.
The 1979 energy crisis was
brought on by a dramatic rise in oil prices worldwide following the Iranian
Revolution. This was brought on by the newly installed Iranian government,
which increased prices by exporting oil at irregular intervals and at a lesser
volume. Another recession was brought on by the United States’ tight monetary
policy to combat inflation. The inflation that was carried over from the prior
decade as a result of the 1973 oil crisis and the 1979 energy crisis was a major
factor in the alterations.
Early 1990s recession
After the 1980s’ protracted
period of peacetime expansion, inflation started to rise, and the Federal
Reserve responded by hiking interest rates between 1986 and 1989. This slowed
growth but did not stop it, and a temporary recession was brought on by a
combination of the shock to oil prices in 1990, the debt buildup of the 1980s,
and rising consumer pessimism.
December 2007 – June 2009
The housing bubble in the US
burst as a result of the subprime mortgage crisis. Despite rising gasoline and
food costs, a global financial crisis resulted from falling housing-related
assets. Many of the greatest financial organizations in the United States,
including Bear Stearns, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Lehman Brothers, and AIG,
failed or collapsed as a result of the crisis, which also caused a crisis in
the car sector. An unprecedented $700 billion bank rescue and $787 billion
fiscal stimulus program were the government’s responses. More than a year
after the recession’s scheduled end, the National Bureau of Economic Research
proclaimed it finished. On March 9, 2009, the Dow Jones Industrial Average
(Dow) attained its lowest level.
The upcoming recession of 2023
Nevertheless, after falling by 1.6% in the
first quarter of 2022, the U.S. GDP shrank at a seasonally adjusted annual rate
of 0.9% in the second quarter of 2022. Economists point out that American
businesses are still hiring, and that Americans are still spending money. In
August, the U.S. economy added 315,000 jobs, and the unemployment rate is now
at its pre-pandemic level. A U.S. recession usually does not
correlate with such a healthy job market.
to the findings, a World Economic Forum survey conducted on a
sample of 22 top economists from the commercial and public sectors on Wednesday
revealed that seven out of ten respondents thought a global upcoming recession
was at least somewhat likely to occur in 2023.
likelihood of a global recession in 2017 has increased to 98.1 percent,
according to Ned Davis Research, a Florida-based research company known for its
Global Recession Probability Model. This is the highest probability since the
2020 global financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic-related downturn.
the continued strength of the labor market and the still-low unemployment rate,
it appears that we are most likely experiencing a different type of recession.
Therefore, it won’t be clear for some time whether we are in a recession.
However, it is obvious that the economy is in a slump, and the upcoming
recession is likely to accentuate it further. There is no doubt that inflation is
high, and people are having to pay more for necessities like food and utilities
as well as the new or used car they want to purchase. Therefore, whether there
is an official recession or not, there is real suffering.